The transit planets are the moving planets going through the Zodiac signs, and each has their own energy, moves at its own pace, and does its own thing. The transit Sun is no exception, and is the one who shines a light on matters.
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Transit Sun Astrology
The energy of the Sun in predictive astrology is to shine a light. In your natal chart, the Sun is your true inner self, the biggest part of your personality and of who you are. The Sun shines bright, and in transit, it shines its light on different parts of your natal chart as it tours through the signs and goes through your natal houses and aspects your natal planets.
The Sun moves about 1 degree per day, going through all 12 signs in about a year, and is relatively constant. It doesn't retrograde (appear to move backward), and is around the same position in the Zodiac each year. This is why your Solar Return (which is when the transit Sun returns to the exact position it was at when you were born) occurs the day before, day of, or day after your birthday every year.
With the Sun going through all 12 signs every year, it goes through all 12 of your natal houses every year, and makes every aspect to your natal planets every year.
The Sun Shines a Light on Your Houses
The house in your natal chart the transit Sun is touring has a light shone on it. The areas of life that house rules can get more of your attention.
The Sun spends about 1 month in each of your houses (more or less depending on the size of the house), and goes through each house around the same time every year. If you've noticed a pattern where certain times of the year seem to always focus on the same parts of your life or have similar events happening or similar energy, this may be why!
The Sun Shines a Light on Your Planets
When the transit Sun is aspecting one of your natal planets, the planet and whatever it rules can get more of your attention as well. This may be in a challenging way with squares and oppositions, the hard aspects, while it may be in a beneficial way with sextiles and trines, the easy aspects. Conjunctions tend to be more neutral, especially with the Sun, so a transit Sun conjunction can amplify whatever is already happening with the planet it's conjuncting, or may amplify the energy of the planet itself so it operates on a stronger level.
With the transit Sun moving at about the same pace every year, you experience the same aspect around the same time each year as well. Again, this may bring out similar themes, events, and energy around the same dates every year for you.
Suggested Reading: The Transit Sun page for interpretations of the transit Sun in the houses and aspects