The Sun and Moon are considered to be the two most important parts of your chart. The Sun rules your inner self, the real you behind the facade (the Ascendant). The Moon rules your emotions, how you react emotionally in situations and what you need to feel emotionally secure and safe. So you can see why they're the most important parts of the chart! Study the positions of your Sun and Moon and the aspects they make to get a better understanding of what makes you tick. The most important aspect to consider is the aspect they make to one another. That alone can be the best indicator of how much you accept or are at war with yourself. You also want to look at the Sun-Moon midpoint, the exact middle of the two points, because that shows how your Sun and Moon best come together (and if you have your Sun and Moon making a difficult aspect to one another, the Sun-Moon midpoint can be beneficial to helping you manage it well).
In prediction, the transit (moving) Sun shows where a light will be shown on in your life with the house it's moving through and aspects it makes. Attention and focus will be paid to those areas. The transit Moon shows where your emotional focus will be, what will rile you up emotionally and how your emotional state will be.
The Sun rules Leo and the 5th house, the Moon rules Cancer and the 4th house.
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